Harry J. Anslinger retired from the now-defunct Federal Bureau of Narcotics 60 years in the past, however he stays the final word boogey man of each pot smoker on the earth—a form of atavistic “human paraquat” whose overt racism and institutional cruelty stays on the coronary heart of the continued world Conflict on Medication.
Anslinger returned to public consciousness final week with the discharge (on Hulu) of The United States vs. Billie Holiday, a brand new movie from Lee Daniels (Push, Empire) telling the true story of how America’s first “drug czar” used the complete energy of federal legislation enforcement to focus on the legendary jazz singer for a number of arrests, in the end hounding her into an early grave.
Fed narcotics company constructed racism into its work
Anchored by a superb Golden-Globe-winning performance from Andra Day within the title position, the story—primarily based partially on Johann Hari’s insightful ebook Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs—rightly casts Anslinger because the villain. However with the narrative targeted on Vacation herself, and a real-life undercover FBN agent tasked with taking her down, the pinnacle of the FBN doesn’t get a whole lot of display time.
Which means viewers outraged by the occasions depicted will doubtless be left with a whole lot of questions in regards to the man behind this modern-day inquisition.
Harry Anslinger’s position
Talking as somebody who as soon as took a street journey to go to Harry Anslinger’s grave in rural Pennsylvania, smoke a joint, plant a seed, and “water it in”—see a really particular episode of my podcast Great Moments in Weed History—this can be a piece of historical past that should be understood, lest we proceed to repeat it endlessly.
For instance, Anslinger’s begin in legislation enforcement got here as a number one proponent of alcohol prohibition, a place he steadfastly supported regardless of its failure by each potential metric.
Transferring from booze the medicine
By the point the Conflict on Booze resulted in 1933, Anslinger had already moved on to imposing present prohibitions towards opioids and different narcotics, together with by spearheading a marketing campaign to focus on physicians offering upkeep doses to these combating dependancy. Greater than 20,000 docs could be arrested on Anslinger’s orders, successfully ending the observe, whereas pushing customers (together with Billie Vacation) to search out medicine on the road and creating an extremely profitable new income stream for organized crime simply as the tip of the bootlegging period threatened to depart these gangsters excessive and dry.
Anslinger would finally come to simply accept that alcohol prohibition was a horrible failure. However as an alternative of throwing open the taverns, he needed to double down.
In 1928, he wrote a place paper calling for an extension of the Volstead Act (alcohol prohibition) to focus on not simply those that manufacture, distribute, and promote alcoholic drinks, but in addition those that purchase and eat the drug.
Six months in jail for getting a bottle
In response to Harry’s plan, a primary offense for unlawful buy of alcohol would imply a compulsory minimal of six months in jail.
However then two years later—sensing a shift within the prevailing political winds—he abruptly declared Prohibition to be a misplaced trigger.
Although famously, this wasn’t his final try at banning one thing.
On January 14, 1937, Anslinger headed a marijuana convention in Washington, DC, attended by authorities authorities and teachers.
At one level the Treasury Division’s main chemist requested what impact banning hemp seeds might need on the birdseed trade. Anslinger replied, in all seriousness, that it may make caged birds cease singing.
Not that such a risk modified the prohibitionists’ minds any.
The one physician who spoke, opposed prohibition
The lads who banned marijuana have been equally unfazed by the testimony of Dr. William C. Woodward of the American Medical Affiliation, the one speaker to current himself as a hostile witness. Each a doctor and an lawyer, Dr. Woodward mainly referred to as bullshit on your entire proceedings:
1937 Act gave Anslinger energy to harass jazz artists
With the next passage of the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, federal hashish prohibition grew to become the legislation of the land. Anslinger instantly used his new energy to focus on two teams specifically—Mexican-American immigrants (together with many who not too long ago arrived as warfare refugees) and African-American jazz musicians.
Previous to and even after federal prohibition, a variety of jazz greats recorded weedy torch songs like Reefer Man (Cab Calloway), If You’re a Viper (Fat Waller), Texas Tea Social gathering (Benny Goodman), Muggles (Louis Armstrong), Gimme a Reefer (Bessie Smith), Once I Get Low, I Get Excessive (Ella Fitzgerald), and I’m Feeling Excessive and Completely happy (Gene Krupa).
A plan to deliver down your entire style of music
In a memo to his FBN area brokers, Anslinger detailed a plan to retaliate by taking down your entire jazz scene directly, writing: Please put together all instances in your jurisdiction involving musicians in violation of the marijuana legal guidelines. We could have an incredible nationwide round-up arrest of all such individuals on a single day.
However these plans fizzled, as detailed in Chasing the Scream:
A childhood marked by trauma
After enduring a childhood marked by excessive trauma, abuse and heartbreak, Billie Vacation had developed a substance abuse drawback and was extensively identified to be a person of heroin and different medicine. However that’s not what put a goal on her again.
Harry Anslinger’s obsession with Billie Vacation started on the night time in 1939 when she sang Unusual Fruit in public for the primary time. A searing indictment of the lynching of Black individuals as a way of imposing white supremacy, the tune touched a nerve with audiences, notably when sung with Vacation’s signature mixture of pathos and defiance.
FBI: Cease singing ‘Unusual Fruit,’ or else
Nearly instantly, the FBN warned her to cease singing Unusual Fruit or to face the implications. She would proceed to carry out it till her demise.
Anslinger despatched a Black spy to surveil Billie Vacation. The primary time he busted her by pretending to ship a telegram. After that, he simply stored following her.
“I had so many shut conversations together with her, about so many issues,” this narc later reported. “She was the kind who would make anybody sympathetic as a result of she was the loving sort.”
Arrange by her personal man
In the meantime, Billy Vacation made strikes to rid herself of one other abusive man, her husband and supervisor Louis McKay, who bodily assaulted her to the purpose she typically wanted to tape up her ribcage simply to sing. When McKay, enraged by Holliday leaving him, discovered that Anslinger was on her tail, he traveled to Washington, DC and met with the pinnacle of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
Collectively they plotted to set Vacation up for one more bust.
In response to Chasing the Scream:
Sadistic harassment even within the hospital
When she bought out, Anslinger re-assigned the high-profile case to his favourite agent, Colonel George White, who was referred to as a real sadist. White set Vacation up for her remaining bust by planting medicine on her whereas she was within the hospital.
She was then held as a digital prisoner, denied correct healthcare, any guests, and even books to learn. On the road outdoors the hospital, protesters held up indicators studying “Let Girl Stay,” however she would die proper there within the hospital, surrounded by cops.
All by the 1950’s, as hashish continued to unfold through the underground, Anslinger would efficiently push for more and more draconian penalties, together with for easy possession, by immediately linking hashish and Communism throughout the peak of the pink scare. By no means thoughts the entire lack of any credible proof to again up his claims of an enormous plot out of Moscow to enslave America to marijuana dependancy.
And so, from its onset, the Conflict on Medication labored to implement each white supremacy and the crushing of political dissent—a one-two punch that continues immediately.